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文化名城保护堪忧:古建筑或败或拆

来源: 南方日报网络版     时间: 2019年09月23日 15:47:55
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(  《经)(济)(参)(考)(报)(》记)(者)(近)(期)(在)(湖)(北)(、河)(南)(、江)(苏)(、山)(西)(、陕)(西)(、河)(北)(等)(省)(市)(走)(访)(发)(现)(,我)(国)(一)(些)(地)(方)(历)(史)(文)(化)(名)(城)(面)(临)(衰)(败)(凋)(零)(、管)(理)(尴)(尬)(、过)(度)(商)(业)(化)(、违)(法)(成)(本)(过)(低)(、修)(缮)(欠)(账)(严)(重)(等)(困)(境)(,其)(背)(后)(凸)(显)(出)(法)(律)(不)(健)(全)(、基)(层)(官)(员)(思)(想)(认)(识)(偏)(差)(、管)(理)(机)(制)(尚)(未)(理)(顺)(以)(及)(资)(金)(不)(到)(位)(等)(原)(因)(。
  专)(家)(呼)(吁)(,理)(顺)(历)(史)(文)(化)(名)(城)(管)(理)(体)(制)(,建)(立)(名)(城)(名)(单)(退)(出)(机)(制)(,建)(立)(鼓)(励)(社)(会)(与)(公)(众)(共)(同)(参)(与)(的)(名)(城)(保)(护)(制)(度)(,有)(序)(引)(导)(民)(营)(资)(本)(及)(NGO组)(织)(参)(与)(名)(城)(保)(护)(。
  历)(史)(建)(筑)(难)(逃)(“败)(”“拆)(”命)(运)(
  “街)(上)(没)(几)(个)(年)(轻)(人)(住)(,屋)(漏)(了)(、墙)(歪)(了)(都)(没)(人)(管)(,老)(人)(们)(都)(是)(将)(就)(着)(住)(,人)(死)(了)(,屋)(子)(也)(就)(空)(了)(。”在)(湖)(北)(省)(随)(州)(历)(史)(文)(化)(街)(区)(安)(居)(镇)(九)(街)(十)(八)(巷)(,说)(起)(老)(街)(变)(迁)(,81岁)(的)(居)(民)(魏)(少)(明)(有)(些)(落)(寞)(,因)(为)(这)(两)(年)(,街)(上)(的)(白)(事)(一)(桩)(接)(一)(桩)(,老)(街)(越)(来)(越)(冷)(清)(。
  这)(条)(始)(建)(于)(1300年)(前)(的)(老)(街)(,因)(漕)(运)(发)(达)(,商)(业)(繁)(荣)(,一)(度)(被)(称)(为)(“小)(汉)(口)(”,街)(区)(内)(266间)(古)(建)(筑)(更)(是)(保)(留)(中)(国)(传)(统)(建)(筑)(样)(式)(而)(别)(具)(风)(味)(。当)(地)(多)(位)(居)(民)(告)(诉)(记)(者)(,20世)(纪)(60年)(代)(以)(来)(,随)(着)(公)(路)(、铁)(路)(交)(通)(快)(速)(发)(展)(,人)(们)(纷)(纷)(临)(近)(公)(路)(边)(建)(新)(房)(,安)(居)(新)(镇)(逐)(渐)(替)(代)(老)(街)(,迅)(速)(“空)(心)(化)(”让)(老)(街)(走)(向)(衰)(败)(。
  部)(分)(历)(史)(文)(化)(街)(区)(破)(败)(凋)(零)(,而)(另)(一)(些)(则)(因)(过)(度)(商)(业)(开)(发)(而)(消)(融)(历)(史)(文)(化)(风)(貌)(。湖)(北)(省)(襄)(阳)(北)(街)(是)(襄)(阳)(市)(的)(历)(史)(文)(化)(街)(区)(,其)(历)(史)(可)(追)(溯)(至)(商)(周)(时)(期)(,1991年)(,当)(地)(将)(其)(改)(建)(为)(一)(条)(设)(有)(300多)(间)(门)(面)(的)(仿)(明)(清)(建)(筑)(风)(格)(的)(文)(化)(商)(业)(步)(行)(街)(。记)(者)(在)(现)(场)(看)(到)(,青)(砖)(灰)(墙)(间)(,“东)(北)(饺)(子)(馆)(”“乡)(村)(锅)(巴)(饭)(”等)(霓)(虹)(灯)(招)(牌)(不)(停)(闪)(烁)(,雷)(同)(的)(街)(边)(小)(吃)(和)(服)(装)(品)(牌)(,与)(其)(他)(商)(业)(街)(别)(无)(二)(致)(。
  “仿)(得)(再)(好)(,也)(是)(假)(的)(,它)(不)(能)(代)(表)(当)(地)(的)(文)(化)(风)(貌)(。”长)(期)(从)(事)(襄)(阳)(历)(史)(研)(究)(的)(释)(贵)(明)(告)(诉)(记)(者)(,襄)(阳)(北)(街)(上)(有)(一)(座)(名)(人)(故)(居)(,在)(街)(区)(改)(造)(过)(程)(中)(租)(给)(了)(一)(家)(服)(装)(店)(,该)(店)(进)(行)(整)(体)(装)(修)(后)(,故)(居)(内)(天)(井)(、廊)(柱)(被)(遮)(蔽)(起)(来)(,现)(在)(已)(经)(找)(不)(到)(任)(何)(历)(史)(建)(筑)(的)(痕)(迹)(。
  在)(历)(史)(文)(化)(街)(区)(向)(两)(极)(发)(展)(的)(背)(景)(下)(,能)(够)(反)(映)(历)(史)(风)(貌)(和)(地)(方)(特)(色)(的)(“非)(文)(物)(”身)(份)(的)(历)(史)(建)(筑)(,虽)(然)(在)(2008年)(《历)(史)(文)(化)(名)(城)(名)(镇)(名)(村)(保)(护)(条)(例)(》出)(台)(后)(,有)(了)(法)(律)(保)(障)(,但)(目)(前)(普)(遍)(处)(于)(“挂)(牌)(”阶)(段)(,破)(败)(和)(被)(拆)(问)(题)(依)(旧)(严)(重)(。
  河)(南)(浚)(县)(老)(城)(区)(内)(有)(152处)(历)(史)(建)(筑)(,三)(分)(之)(一)(需)(要)(维)(修)(。但)(老)(百)(姓)(没)(钱)(修)(,国)(家)(也)(没)(补)(贴)(,历)(史)(建)(筑)(只)(能)(越)(来)(越)(破)(。
  在)(河)(南)(省)(浚)(县)(历)(史)(文)(化)(街)(区)(南)(山)(街)(,记)(者)(看)(到)(,许)(多)(挂)(牌)(的)(历)(史)(建)(筑)(被)(红)(砖)(房)(包)(围)(着)(,有)(些)(历)(史)(建)(筑)(只)(剩)(下)(门)(脸)(,院)(子)(里)(都)(是)(居)(民)(新)(近)(建)(起)(来)(的)(两)(层)(楼)(房)(,还)(有)(些)(历)(史)(建)(筑)(院)(子)(内)(,是)(居)(民)(私)(搭)(乱)(建)(的)(各)(种)(砖)(房)(、棚)(户)(等)(,有)(些)(历)(史)(建)(筑)(墙)(体)(已)(经)(破)(了)(很)(多)(洞)(、土)(坯)(也)(塌)(了)(半)(边)(。
  即)(使)(是)(在)(保)(护)(相)(对)(较)(好)(的)(平)(遥)(古)(城)(,商)(业)(旅)(游)(开)(发)(带)(动)(当)(地)(房)(地)(产)(市)(场)(迅)(速)(升)(温)(,居)(民)(在)(商)(业)(利)(益)(驱)(动)(下)(,不)(是)(把)(传)(统)(民)(居)(拆)(了)(往)(上)(盖)(成)(二)(层)(楼)(,就)(是)(往)(下)(挖)(地)(下)(室)(,改)(造)(成)(客)(栈)(、饭)(店)(,不)(仅)(改)(变)(了)(街)(区)(原)(有)(风)(貌)(,还)(破)(坏)(了)(历)(史)(建)(筑)(的)(原)(真)(性)(。
  保)(护)(工)(作)(者)(遭)(遇)(诸)(多)(“难)(”
  记)(者)(采)(访)(了)(解)(到)(,房)(屋)(一)(旦)(被)(列)(为)(历)(史)(建)(筑)(,很)(可)(能)(这)(块)(地)(容)(积)(率)(就)(受)(到)(限)(制)(,发)(展)(权)(就)(受)(到)(损)(失)(。由)(于)(没)(有)(相)(应)(的)(补)(偿)(机)(制)(,保)(护)(工)(作)(就)(变)(成)(了)(“大)(家)(都)(不)(喜)(欢)(”的)(事)(情)(,产)(权)(人)(只)(承)(担)(责)(任)(而)(享)(受)(不)(到)(权)(益)(。
  为)(保)(护)(城)(区)(优)(秀)(历)(史)(建)(筑)(,荆)(州)(市)(人)(民)(政)(府)(在)(2011年)(与)(当)(地)(历)(史)(文)(化)(街)(区)(三)(义)(街)(居)(民)(签)(订)(了)(《荆)(州)(市)(优)(秀)(历)(史)(建)(筑)(保)(护)(协)(议)(》,记)(者)(看)(到)(,5条)(协)(议)(内)(容)(,均)(对)(乙)(方)(房)(屋)(所)(有)(人)(提)(出)(了)(具)(体)(要)(求)(,而)(对)(甲)(方)(荆)(州)(市)(人)(民)(政)(府)(,只)(提)(出)(根)(据)(实)(际)(情)(况)(给)(予)(乙)(方)(适)(当)(补)(助)(。
  三)(义)(街)(118号)(住)(户)(崔)(忠)(良)(告)(诉)(记)(者)(,他)(家)(的)(房)(屋)(有)(近)(百)(年)(历)(史)(,由)(于)(年)(久)(失)(修)(,2014年)(墙)(体)(出)(现)(倾)(斜)(,屋)(顶)(漏)(雨)(严)(重)(,急)(需)(进)(行)(维)(修)(,但)(由)(于)(房)(屋)(被)(评)(为)(荆)(州)(市)(优)(秀)(历)(史)(建)(筑)(,维)(修)(受)(到)(有)(关)(方)(面)(阻)(挠)(,此)(后)(多)(次)(向)(上)(反)(映)(问)(题)(,才)(获)(准)(修)(葺)(房)(屋)(。但)(据)(崔)(忠)(良)(介)(绍)(,房)(子)(都)(修)(好)(一)(年)(多)(了)(,也)(没)(看)(到)(补)(贴)(款)(发)(下)(来)(。
  而)(对)(于)(各)(地)(历)(史)(文)(化)(名)(城)(的)(保)(护)(工)(作)(者)(来)(说)(,则)(面)(临)(着)(规)(章)(制)(度)(落)(实)(监)(管)(难)(、保)(护)(修)(缮)(有)(心)(无)(力)(、历)(史)(遗)(产)(如)(何)(保)(护)(争)(议)(大)(等)(问)(题)(。
  据)(了)(解)(,前)(三)(批)(公)(布)(的)(国)(家)(历)(史)(文)(化)(名)(城)(大)(多)(已)(出)(台)(地)(方)(性)(保)(护)(条)(例)(或)(暂)(行)(办)(法)(,成)(立)(名)(城)(保)(护)(管)(理)(委)(员)(会)(,明)(确)(名)(城)(保)(护)(范)(围)(、措)(施)(以)(及)(各)(部)(门)(的)(相)(应)(职)(责)(。但)(记)(者)(发)(现)(,尽)(管)(有)(制)(度)(安)(排)(,但)(具)(体)(落)(实)(上)(却)(十)(分)(困)(难)(。
  此)(外)(,不)(少)(名)(城)(保)(护)(工)(作)(者)(说)(,“钱)(”是)(套)(在)(所)(有)(保)(护)(人)(员)(头)(上)(的)(紧)(箍)(咒)(。都)(说)(保)(护)(名)(城)(是)(保)(护)(全)(社)(会)(的)(共)(同)(财)(富)(,但)(现)(在)(这)(些)(文)(化)(遗)(产)(的)(看)(家)(人)(不)(但)(修)(缮)(资)(金)(不)(足)(,还)(面)(临)(与)(其)(他)(地)(区)(一)(样)(的)(发)(展)(任)(务)(和)(GDP指)(标)(,做)(名)(城)(工)(作)(不)(是)(厚)(着)(脸)(皮)(四)(处)(“化)(缘)(”,就)(是)(变)(着)(法)(儿)(问)(老)(城)(要)(效)(益)(,绞)(尽)(脑)(汁)(把)(“老)(古)(董)(”变)(成)(“摇)(钱)(树)(”。
  山)(西)(祁)(县)(昭)(馀)(古)(城)(管)(理)(处)(相)(关)(负)(责)(人)(说)(,如)(果)(通)(过)(招)(商)(来)(搞)(名)(城)(保)(护)(,开)(发)(商)(天)(然)(逐)(利)(,要)(么)(把)(古)(城)(变)(得)(过)(度)(商)(业)(化)(,要)(么)(推)(倒)(一)(大)(片)(,用)(最)(粗)(糙)(的)(方)(式)(把)(老)(房)(子)(变)(成)(符)(合)(现)(代)(需)(要)(的)(假)(古)(董)(。
  更)(为)(关)(键)(的)(是)(,历)(史)(遗)(产)(到)(底)(该)(怎)(么)(保)(、怎)(么)(用)(、怎)(么)(在)(历)(史)(遗)(产)(的)(传)(承)(中)(体)(现)(其)(当)(代)(价)(值)(和)(创)(造)(,保)(护)(工)(作)(者)(依)(然)(很)(茫)(然)(。
  有)(待)(法)(律)(健)(全)(和)(资)(金)(到)(位)(
  中)(国)(城)(市)(规)(划)(设)(计)(研)(究)(院)(院)(长)(杨)(保)(军)(说)(,一)(种)(错)(误)(倾)(向)(认)(为)(保)(护)(名)(城)(阻)(碍)(了)(城)(市)(发)(展)(;另)(一)(种)(错)(误)(倾)(向)(过)(分)(强)(调)(名)(城)(蕴)(含)(的)(文)(化)(旅)(游)(和)(经)(济)(价)(值)(。
  杨)(保)(军)(认)(为)(,在)(这)(种)(错)(误)(思)(想)(认)(识)(指)(导)(下)(,自)(然)(会)(导)(致)(城)(市)(发)(展)(模)(式)(偏)(差)(、规)(划)(编)(制)(水)(平)(低)(下)(、保)(护)(监)(管)(措)(施)(不)(力)(等)(情)(形)(,难)(免)(会)(出)(现)(成)(片)(历)(史)(地)(段)(消)(失)(、建)(筑)(高)(度)(失)(控)(、空)(间)(肌)(理)(混)(乱)(、新)(旧)(建)(筑)(冲)(突)(,使)(得)(古)(城)(历)(史)(风)(貌)(不)(断)(消)(失)(,城)(市)(特)(色)(日)(渐)(模)(糊)(。
  违)(法)(成)(本)(过)(低)(,缺)(乏)(足)(够)(威)(慑)(力)(。例)(如)(,《城)(乡)(规)(划)(法)(》规)(定)(,对)(违)(反)(规)(划)(的)(建)(设)(,不)(能)(拆)(除)(的)(,处)(建)(设)(造)(价)(10%以)(下)(的)(罚)(款)(。“有)(的)(开)(发)(商)(明)(说)(,我)(就)(是)(准)(备)(罚)(款)(50万)(。”南)(京)(明)(城)(垣)(史)(博)(物)(馆)(研)(究)(员)(杨)(国)(庆)(说)(,不)(仅)(惩)(戒)(力)(度)(不)(足)(,也)(没)(有)(追)(责)(,违)(反)(了)(规)(划)(、破)(坏)(了)(遗)(产)(,没)(有)(人)(出)(来)(承)(担)(责)(任)(。东)(南)(大)(学)(建)(筑)(系)(教)(授)(朱)(光)(亚)(表)(示)(,对)(于)(保)(护)(不)(力)(的)(名)(城)(,现)(在)(只)(是)(“警)(告)(”而)(不)(是)(“摘)(帽)(”,因)(为)(“摘)(帽)(”就)(会)(影)(响)(这)(个)(城)(市)(干)(部)(的)(前)(途)(。
  此)(外)(,保)(护)(资)(金)(投)(入)(缺)(口)(巨)(大)(,保)(护)(规)(划)(与)(实)(施)(脱)(节)(严)(重)(。据)(记)(者)(采)(访)(,国)(家)(历)(史)(文)(化)(名)(城)(保)(护)(专)(项)(资)(金)(近)(年)(有)(较)(大)(幅)(度)(增)(长)(,“十)(一)(五)(”期)(间)(,投)(入)(6.29亿)(元)(,2011年)(到)(2013年)(,投)(入)(9.27亿)(元)(,不)(过)(,相)(对)(于)(130个)(国)(家)(历)(史)(文)(化)(名)(城)(和)(500多)(个)(历)(史)(文)(化)(名)(镇)(名)(村)(,国)(家)(层)(面)(的)(保)(护)(资)(金)(仍)(然)(匮)(乏)(。在)(地)(方)(政)(府)(层)(面)(,除)(少)(数)(以)(发)(展)(旅)(游)(为)(主)(导)(产)(业)(的)(城)(市)(外)(,几)(乎)(没)(有)(这)(方)(面)(的)(专)(项)(资)(金)(。中)(国)(名)(城)(委)(2014年)(对)(125个)(国)(家)(历)(史)(文)(化)(名)(城)(进)(行)(的)(调)(查)(显)(示)(,每)(年)(安)(排)(数)(额)(不)(等)(专)(项)(保)(护)(资)(金)(的)(城)(市)(仅)(为)(23%。
  同)(时)(,由)(于)(缺)(乏)(鼓)(励)(机)(制)(,个)(人)(资)(金)(、社)(会)(捐)(助)(资)(金)(也)(非)(常)(有)(限)(,开)(发)(商)(资)(金)(就)(成)(为)(很)(多)(地)(方)(名)(城)(保)(护)(的)(主)(要)(来)(源)(。洛)(阳)(市)(文)(物)(局)(隋)(唐)(城)(遗)(址)(管)(理)(处)(处)(长)(王)(丽)(娟)(说)(:“这)(无)(疑)(是)(一)(把)(双)(刃)(剑)(,一)(方)(面)(,名)(城)(保)(护)(大)(量)(的)(资)(金)(投)(入)(有)(了)(来)(源)(,另)(一)(方)(面)(,利)(润)(最)(大)(化)(的)(开)(发)(商)(会)(放)(弃)(没)(有)(开)(发)(价)(值)(的)(部)(分)(,比)(如)(原)(住)(民)(、整)(体)(的)(空)(间)(格)(局)(等)(,造)(成)(历)(史)(文)(化)(街)(区)(真)(实)(性)(、完)(整)(性)(和)(生)(活)(延)(续)(性)(的)(破)(坏)(。”
  中)(国)(名)(城)(委)(2014年)(对)(125个)(国)(家)(历)(史)(文)(化)(名)(城)(进)(行)(的)(调)(查)(显)(示)(,名)(城)(保)(护)(管)(理)(机)(构)(多)(达)(9种)(类)(型)(,各)(地)(分)(别)(由)(名)(城)(委)(、规)(划)(、文)(化)(、文)(物)(、建)(设)(、房)(管)(、旅)(游)(等)(部)(门)(牵)(头)(,甚)(至)(,有)(的)(设)(在)(旅)(游)(公)(司)(,或)(干)(脆)(不)(设)(管)(理)(机)(构)(。在)(所)(有)(历)(史)(文)(化)(名)(城)(政)(府)(中)(,配)(备)(专)(职)(的)(行)(政)(或)(事)(业)(编)(制)(的)(仅)(占)(14%。
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