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揭古人防盗墓手法:小说里写的“机关”靠谱吗?

来源: 南方日报网络版     时间: 2019年09月23日 15:18:52
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(  《寻)(龙)(诀)(》的)(热)(映)(,使)(盗)(墓)(和)(反)(盗)(墓)(成)(为)(热)(门)(话)(题)(。虽)(然)(说)(“十)(墓)(九)(空)(”,很)(多)(古)(墓)(被)(考)(古)(专)(家)(发)(现)(时)(,往)(往)(被)(盗)(墓)(贼)(“捷)(足)(先)(登)(”,遭)(到)(洗)(劫)(,但)(历)(史)(上)(,古)(人)(也)(的)(确)(想)(过)(不)(少)(防)(盗)(措)(施)(。
  最)(近)(,石)(头)(君)(又)(请)(教)(了)(不)(少)(专)(家)(,对)(古)(人)(的)(防)(盗)(墓)(手)(段)(做)(了)(一)(个)(简)(单)(的)(梳)(理)((本)(文)(讲)(述)(的)(,多)(为)(真)(实)(历)(史)(,而)(不)(是)(盗)(墓)(小)(说)(虚)(构)(情)(节)(,不)(喜)(者)(勿)(怪)()。
  防)(盗)(墓)(之)(设)(“疑)(冢)(”
  设)(“疑)(冢)(”是)(防)(盗)(墓)(的)(最)(普)(通)(手)(段)(,也)(就)(是)(刻)(意)(隐)(藏)(墓)(址)(,或)(者)(虚)(虚)(实)(实)(设)(一)(大)(堆)(墓)(。
  最)(为)(典)(型)(的)(例)(子)(,是)(三)(国)(时)(期)(的)(奸)(雄)(曹)(操)(。曹)(操)(生)(前)(酷)(爱)(盗)(墓)(,曾)(专)(设)(“摸)(金)(校)(尉)(”官)(职)(,专)(门)(搞)(盗)(墓)(。相)(传)(,曹)(操)(深)(知)(自)(己)(死)(后)(也)(有)(被)(盗)(墓)(的)(风)(险)(,因)(此)(特)(地)(在)(河)(北)(临)(漳)(、磁)(县)(等)(地)(设)(“七)(十)(二)(疑)(冢)(”,来)(迷)(惑)(盗)(墓)(贼)(。
  随)(着)(前)(几)(年)(真)(正)(的)(曹)(操)(墓)(在)(河)(南)(安)(阳)(被)(发)(现)(,“七)(十)(二)(疑)(冢)(”的)(谜)(团)(正)(式)(画)(上)(句)(号)(。
河)(南)(安)(阳)(曹)(操)(墓)(
  设)(“疑)(冢)(”的)(手)(法)(在)(南)(京)(也)(有)(相)(似)(事)(例)(。
  早)(年)(间)(,有)(考)(古)(专)(家)(在)(南)(京)(幕)(府)(山)(挖)(了)(两)(个)(距)(离)(很)(近)(的)(孙)(吴)(时)(期)(的)(砖)(室)(墓)(。墓)(里)(面)(出)(土)(的)(文)(物)(,乃)(至)(随)(葬)(的)(买)(地)(券)(券)(文)(都)(几)(乎)(一)(样)(。通)(过)(分)(析)(,这)(两)(个)(墓)(葬)(其)(中)(一)(个)(是)(真)(的)(,一)(个)(是)(迷)(惑)(人)(的)(“疑)(冢)(”。
  南)(京)(民)(间)(传)(说)(,朱)(元)(璋)(死)(后)(也)(设)(过)(“疑)(冢)(”。朱)(洪)(武)(下)(葬)(当)(天)(,南)(京)(十)(三)(座)(城)(门)(同)(时)(出)(棺)(材)(,让)(人)(搞)(不)(清)(哪)(个)(棺)(材)(里)(才)(是)(朱)(元)(璋)(尸)(首)(,自)(然)(也)(无)(法)(弄)(清)(朱)(元)(璋)(葬)(在)(哪)(里)(。
  甚)(至)(还)(有)(传)(说)(,朱)(元)(璋)(葬)(在)(朝)(天)(宫)(地)(下)(。
  专)(家)(认)(为)(,所)(谓)(朱)(元)(璋)(“十)(三)(个)(城)(门)(出)(棺)(材)(”只)(是)(民)(间)(的)(臆)(想)(和)(杜)(撰)(,朱)(元)(璋)(的)(确)(葬)(在)(明)(孝)(陵)(,这)(没)(有)(疑)(义)(。不)(过)(,这)(个)(传)(说)(也)(反)(映)(了)(设)(“疑)(冢)(”、“虚)(冢)(”在)(古)(代)(是)(较)(为)(流)(行)(的)(做)(法)(。
  南)(北)(朝)(时)(期)(,很)(多)(贵)(族)(还)(采)(取)(一)(种)(“潜)(埋)(虚)(葬)(”的)(方)(法)(来)(反)(盗)(墓)(。也)(就)(是)(公)(开)(地)(葬)(在)(一)(个)(地)(方)(,让)(很)(多)(人)(都)(知)(道)(,这)(个)(墓)(里)(有)(陪)(葬)(品)(,这)(叫)(做)(“虚)(葬)(”。但)(关)(键)(的)(是)(,墓)(主)(人)(的)(遗)(骸)(并)(不)(在)(那)(里)(,而)(埋)(在)(另)(一)(个)(更)(加)(神)(秘)(的)(地)(方)(,让)(人)(找)(不)(到)(,这)(叫)(做)(“潜)(埋)(”。
  南)(京)(古)(往)(今)(来)(一)(共)(有)(二)(十)(多)(座)(帝)(陵)(,其)(中)(东)(吴)(、东)(晋)(的)(帝)(陵)(往)(往)(不)(设)(地)(表)(标)(志)(或)(者)(建)(筑)(,“不)(树)(不)(封)(”,虽)(然)(其)(本)(来)(用)(意)(是)(薄)(葬)(,但)(客)(观)(上)(也)(起)(到)(了)(防)(盗)(墓)(的)(作)(用)(。
  防)(盗)(墓)(之)(设)(“机)(关)(”
  放)(出)(“疑)(冢)(”的)(烟)(幕)(弹)(,只)(是)(防)(盗)(墓)(的)(初)(级)(手)(段)(,如)(果)(精)(明)(的)(盗)(墓)(贼)(,找)(到)(了)(真)(正)(的)(墓)(址)(,那)(该)(怎)(么)(办)(?
  其)(实)(,古)(人)(也)(非)(常)(重)(视)(墓)(葬)(本)(身)(的)(防)(盗)(掘)(措)(施)(。最)(典)(型)(的)(,就)(是)(用)(石)(材)(来)(砌)(筑)(墓)(室)(,使)(得)(墓)(室)(无)(比)(坚)(固)(,外)(人)(无)(法)(“入)(侵)(”。
  石)(头)(君)(在)(南)(京)(跑)(了)(很)(多)(考)(古)(现)(场)(,看)(到)(的)(古)(墓)(,以)(砖)(室)(墓)(居)(多)(。用)(砖)(砌)(筑)(的)(墓)(,防)(盗)(功)(能)(没)(有)(那)(么)(明)(显)(,很)(容)(易)(被)(打)(出)(盗)(洞)(,因)(此)(常)(常)(被)(盗)(。
  为)(了)(防)(盗)(,古)(人)(想)(出)(了)(用)(石)(头)(摆)(阵)(势)(,防)(盗)(墓)(的)(点)(子)(,就)(是)(用)(石)(材)(来)(保)(护)(墓)(室)(。
  前)(几)(年)(,南)(京)(市)(博)(物)(馆)(的)(专)(家)(在)(发)(掘)(南)(唐)(二)(陵)(3号)(墓)(,也)(即)(是)(李)(煜)(皇)(后)(大)(周)(后)(的)(懿)(陵)(时)(就)(发)(现)(,此)(墓)(虽)(然)(是)(砖)(砌)(,但)(顶)(部)(有)(一)(层)(防)(盗)(石)(板)(,形)(成)(一)(非)(常)(壮)(观)(的)(“巨)(石)(阵)(”。“巨)(石)(阵)(”平)(面)(呈)(长)(方)(形)(,由)(17块)(石)(板)(组)(成)(。石)(板)(与)(石)(板)(之)(间)(,通)(过)(沟)(槽)(和)(榫)(卯)(紧)(紧)(地)(咬)(合)(在)(一)(起)(。
  看)(起)(来)(,墓)(室)(就)(像)(头)(顶)(着)(一)(层)(厚)(厚)(盾)(牌)(,非)(常)(牢)(固)(。
  在)(南)(京)(以)(外)(的)(地)(方)(,比)(如)(河)(北)(、山)(东)(及)(江)(苏)(徐)(州)(等)(地)(的)(汉)(墓)(,常)(常)(在)(山)(崖)(开)(凿)(洞)(穴)(作)(为)(墓)(室)(,这)(种)(“崖)(墓)(”比)(石)(头)(墓)(更)(加)(坚)(固)(,更)(不)(容)(易)(被)(盗)(。
  这)(种)(墓)(就)(藏)(在)(石)(头)(山)(里)(,营)(造)(起)(来)(要)(花)(费)(几)(年)(甚)(至)(十)(几)(年)(,动)(用)(成)(千)(上)(万)(的)(民)(工)(,入)(口)(处)(和)(通)(道)(里)(有)(大)(型)(条)(石)(,也)(就)(是)(塞)(石)(,重)(达)(数)(吨)(。门)(上)(有)(缝)(隙)(的)(地)(方)(,用)(“铁)(液)(”浇)(筑)(。在)(古)(代)(,没)(有)(先)(进)(工)(具)(的)(前)(提)(下)(,盗)(贼)(不)(管)(从)(哪)(个)(方)(向)(,都)(难)(以)(进)(入)(。
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